History of Religion in America Introduction The issue of religious freedom has played a significant role in the history of the United States and the remainder of North America.
Introduction Feminism brings many things to philosophy including not only a variety of particular moral and political claims, but ways of asking and answering questions, critiques of mainstream philosophical views and methods, and new topics of inquiry.
Feminist contributions to and interventions in mainstream philosophical debates are covered in entries under "Feminism, interventions". Entries covered under the rubric "Feminism, topics" concern philosophical issues that arise as feminists articulate accounts of sexism, critique sexist social and cultural practices, and develop alternative visions of a just world.
In short, they are philosophical topics that arise within feminism. Although there are many different and sometimes conflicting approaches to feminist philosophy, see "Feminism, approaches to"it is instructive to begin by asking what, if anything, feminists as a group are committed to.
Considering some of the controversies over what feminism is provides a springboard for seeing how feminist commitments generate a host of philosophical topics, especially as those commitments confront the world as we know it.
Historical Context The term 'feminism' has many different uses and its meanings are often contested. For example, some writers use the term 'feminism' to refer to a historically specific political movement in the US and Europe ; other writers use it to refer to the belief that there are injustices against women, though there is no consensus on the exact list of these injustices.
My goal here will be to sketch some of the central uses of the term that are most relevant to those interested in contemporary feminist philosophy. For an overview of the history of feminist thought see: The references I provide below are only a small sample of the work available on the topics in question; more complete bibliographies are available at the specific topical entries and also at the end of this entry.
Some feminists trace the origins of the term "feminism" in English as rooted in the movement in Europe and the US beginning with the mobilization for suffrage during the late 19th and early 20th century and refer to this movement as "First Wave" feminism.
Those who employ this history often depict feminist as waning between the two world wars, to be "revived" in the late 's and early 's as what they label "Second Wave" feminism.
More recently, transformations of feminism in the past decade have been referred to as "Third Wave" feminism. However, other feminist scholars object to identifying feminism with these particular moments of political activism, on the grounds that doing so eclipses the fact that there has been resistance to male domination that should be considered "feminist" throughout history and across cultures: Moreover, even considering only relatively recent efforts to resist male domination in Europe and the US, the emphasis on "First" and "Second" Wave feminism ignores the ongoing resistance to male domination between the 's and 's and the resistance outside mainstream politics, particularly by women of color and working class women.
One might seek to solve these problems by emphasizing the political ideas that the term was apparently coined to capture, viz. This acknowledges that commitment to and advocacy for women's rights has not been confined to the Women's Liberation Movement in the West.
But this too raises controversy, for it frames feminism within a broadly Liberal approach to political and economic life.
Although most feminists would probably agree that there is some sense of "rights" on which achieving equal rights for women is a necessary condition for feminism to succeed, most would also argue that this would not be sufficient.
This is because women's oppression under male domination rarely if ever consists solely in depriving women of political and legal "rights", but also extends into the structure of our society and the content of our culture, and permeates our consciousness e.
Given the controversies over the term "feminism" and the politics of circumscribing the boundaries of a social movement, it is sometimes tempting to think that there is little point in demanding a definition of the term beyond a set of disjuncts that capture different instances.
However, at the same time it can be both intellectually and politically valuable to have a schematic framework that enables us to map at least some of our points of agreement and disagreement.
I'll begin here by considering some of the basic elements of feminism as a political position. For an overview of different philosophical approaches to feminism, see "Feminism, approaches to". Normative and Descriptive Components In many of its forms, feminism seems to involve at least two claims, one normative and the other descriptive.
The normative claim concerns how women ought or ought not to be viewed and treated and draws on a background conception of justice or broad moral position; the descriptive claim concerns how women are, as a matter of fact, viewed and treated, alleging that they are not being treated in accordance with the standards of justice or morality invoked in the normative claim.
Together the two claims provide reasons for working to change the way things are; hence, feminism is not just an intellectual but also a political movement. So, for example, a Liberal approach of the kind already mentioned might define feminism rather simplistically here in terms of two claims: On this account, that women and men ought to have equal rights and respect is the normative claim; and that women are denied equal rights and respect functions here as the descriptive claim.A brief history of racism in the United States Samana Siddiqui Racism is the belief that one’s race, skin color, or more generally, one’s group, be it of religious, national or ethnic identity, is .
The Oppression In The 's Everybody, once or more times in his or her life has been oppressed by others or themselves. Such is the case of Richard Wright in Black Boy, his autobiography.
He was born in at the time of segregation and discrimination. A Historical Analysis of Women’s Oppression. Extracted from. For 99% of human history, societies were sustained by the hunting of animals, fishing and gathering other natural sources of food.
As productivity increased, with the use of animal power and the introduction of bronze tools, economic surplus also increased.
In other words. The Long, Painful History of Police Brutality in the U.S. A protest placard in the Smithsonian collections could almost be mistaken for any of the Black Lives Matter marches of today. In western history the very term censorship takes on a whole new meaning with the introduction of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
A similar example of resisting sustained censorship and oppression is resistance during . African Americans faced racial oppression from to The nation released the race from slavery in and altered the Constitution three times soon thereafter to ensure equality before the law.
Nevertheless, until the gains of the s and s Civil Rights Movement, private citizens and.