Is archaeoastronomy still waiting at the gates of orthodoxy or has it gotten inside the gates?
A Twa hunter-gatherer in Uganda climbing a tree to gather honey. Nathaniel Dominy Early Human Ancestors May Have Walked AND Climbed for a Living Africa 31 December The results of recently conducted field studies on modern human groups in the Philippines and Africa are suggesting that humans, among the primates, are not so unique to walking upright as previously thought.
The findings have implications for some of our earliest possible ancestors, including the 3. Associate professor of anthropology Nathaniel Dominy of Dartmouth College, along with colleagues Vivek Venkataraman and Thomas Kraft, compared African Twa hunter-gatherers to agriculturalists living nearby, the Bakiga, in Uganda.
In the Philippines, they compared the Agta hunter-gatherers to the Manobo agriculturalists. They found that the Twa and the Agta hunter-gatherers regularly climbed trees to gather honey, an important element in their diets.
More specifically, they observed that the climbers "walked" up small trees by applying the soles of their feet directly to the trunk and progressing upward, with arms and legs advancing alternately.
To do this successfully, they said, required extreme dorsiflexion, or bending the foot upward toward the shin to a degree not normally possible among most modern humans.
They tested their hypothesis by conducting ultrasound imaging of the fibers of the large calf muscles of individuals in all four groups. The results showed that the Agta and Twa tree-climbers had significantly longer muscle fibers than those of their agricultural counterparts and other "industrialized" modern humans.
It demonstrated that a foot and ankle bone structure adapted primarily for walking upright on land does not necessarily exclude climbing as a behaviorally habitual means of mobility for survival.
The implications for our possible early human ancestors, such as the species Australopithecus afarensis, are significant. Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominid that lived between 3.
It was first discovered by Donald Johanson and colleagues in the Afar region of Ethiopia with the recovery of the partial skeleton of a 3. The find has represented a possible benchmark in human evolution for decades. Along with being among the earliest possible bipedal primates, it has also been thought to be closely related to the genus Homo which includes the modern human species Homo sapienseither as a direct ancestor or indirectly through an unknown earlier ancestor.
This stone tool is most often associated with Homo erectus, a hominin considered by many scientists to be a possible human Homo ancestor. British Museum, Discott, Wikimedia Commons Scientists Research First Stone Tool Industries in Olduvai Gorge Tanzania 22 December An international team of researchers have returned to Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania to unravel the mystery of how humans transitioned from the first stone tool technology to a more sophisticated industry.
Olduvai Gorge, perhaps the most famous site for evidence of early humans, is again the subject of intense research on a decades-old question bearing on human origins: How, when and where did early humans evolve from using the first and simplest stone tool industry, that of Oldowan, to the second-oldest, and more sophisticated, stone tool technology known as the Acheulean?
While Olduvai has been picked over before, most notably by the pioneering scientists L.
The Oldowan is considered to have been made and used during the Lower Paleolithic, from 2. To find answers, the team will be reappraising the chronological stratigraphy of Bed II, known to have yielded previous significant finds, and will be re-excavating some of the later beds of the best known fossil and stone tool sites.
These beds reveal a record of a very important time period 1. Scientists suggest that these same beds may include evidence of the long-sought transition from the more primitive Oldowan stone tools to the appearance of the more advanced Acheulean tools.
Recent research at Olduvai has focused primarily on earlier beds, so research on these later beds will likely present new data to consider. Four key previously excavated sites will be investigated through full-scale excavation. Researchers involved in a new study led by Oxford University have found that between three million and 3.
The findings are published in the early online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. An international research team extracted information from the fossilised teeth of three Australopithecus bahrelghazali individuals -- the first early hominins excavated at two sites in Chad.
Professor Julia Lee-Thorp from Oxford University with researchers from Chad, France and the US analysed the carbon isotope ratios in the teeth and found the signature of a diet rich in foods derived from C4 plants. Professor Lee-Thorp, a specialist in isotopic analyses of fossil tooth enamel, from the Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, said: No African great apes, including chimpanzees, eat this type of food despite the fact it grows in abundance in tropical and subtropical regions.
The only notable exception is the savannah baboon which still forages for these types of plants today.
We were surprised to discover that early hominins appear to have consumed more than even the baboons. The finding is significant in signalling how early humans were able to survive in open landscapes with few trees, rather than sticking only to types of terrain containing many trees.
This allowed them to move out of the earliest ancestral forests or denser woodlands, and occupy and exploit new environments much farther afield, says the study. The fossils of the three individuals, ranging between three million and 3.
Today this is a dry, hyper-arid environment near the ancient Bahr el Ghazal channel which links the southern and northern Lake Chad sub-basins.
However, in their paper the authors observe that at the time when Australopithecus bahrelghazali roamed, the area would have had reeds and sedges growing around a network of shallow lakes, with floodplains and wooded grasslands beyond.
Previously, it was widely believed that early human ancestors acquired tougher tooth enamel, large grinding teeth and powerful muscles so they could eat foods like hard nuts and seeds.Exodus Route Restored: The Scriptures as a whole teach, along with geographic analysis, that the Hebrews crossed the Red Sea on the Gulf of Aqaba, specifically at the Straits of Tiran.
The Scriptures teach that Mount . U of A anthropologist Willoughby believes that the items found prove continuous occupation of the areas over the last , years, through what is known as the "genetic bottleneck" period of the last ice age. Thesis checker software Thesis checker software uiuc 8 week courses fall problem solving strategies examples down syndrome research paper outline essays in love wiki, Archaeology project proposal example.
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