Contact Jacob burckhardt thesis renaissance Overview.
Organisms have life- and death-instincts. Society is an organism. Society has life- and death-instincts. When the life-instinct is predominant in a society, the result is a renaissance-type society; when the death-instinct is predominant in a society, the result is a decadent society.
When the death-instinct in a society reaches an extreme, it turns into its opposite, the life-instinct. Decadence, or the death-instinct, has now reached an extreme in most Western societies. The death-instinct, having reached an extreme in most Western societies, will now turn into its opposite, the life-instinct.
Thus, most Western societies are at the start of a renaissance. And why were the best Greek dramatists and the best Roman poets and the best Russian novelists also born within forty years of each other? Why was the Renaissance so fruitful for various kinds of culture, in various countries?
History includes a series of decadent eras, as well as a series of renaissance-type eras. What are the causes of decadence and renaissance? The organic theory of society provides a clue to the causes of decadence and renaissance. According to the organic theory of society, a society is an organic whole; though it is not actually an organism, it behaves like an organism.
A society is not composed of separate individuals, as a pile of rocks is, but rather of inter-connected individuals, individuals whose instincts are determined by the instincts of their society. One might borrow a phrase from physics and say that individuals in a society are like particles whose wave functions are correlated.
Every branch of culture — philosophy, literature, music, visual art — is under the sway of the same instinct. During the Periclean age in Greece, for example, all branches of culture flourished together. During the late Roman empire, on the other hand, all branches of culture declined together, and creativity dried up.
Not only is every branch of culture under the sway of the same instinct, but political behavior, too, is influenced by that same instinct.
What knits together the individuals in a society? The individuals in a society are connected by living together, by a common history, by a collective unconscious, and by a shared life- or death-instinct. Most epochs are neither completely renaissance-type nor completely decadent; most epochs are moderately renaissance-type or moderately decadent, that is, most epochs are a combination of the life-instinct and the death-instinct, with one of these instincts slightly stronger than the other.
A few epochs, however, are completely renaissance-type or completely decadent. Epochs that are completely renaissance-type are more noticeable, more visible, more memorable, than those that are completely decadent.
The Periclean age in Greece, and the Renaissance age in Italy are two examples of completely renaissance-type epochs. In epochs like these, the life-instinct is markedly stronger than the death-instinct.
Only the genius expresses the instinct of an era; as Hegel would say, only the great man expresses the Spirit of the Age.
Genius sublimates its instincts, and only in sublimated form can instincts become visible to the eye of history. An extreme of happiness, for example, often turns into sadness, and an extreme of liberty often turns into tyranny. In the West, the theory of the dialectic originated with Heraclitus, who believed that everything moved toward its opposite; Heraclitus spoke of enantiodromia, running toward the opposite.
A decadent society will reach an extreme of decadence before turning into a renaissance-type society; the darkest hour is right before the dawn.
Thus, a renaissance-type society will decline gradually into a decadent society. An era like this usually lasts about forty years. In this case, about fifty-four years elapsed between the birth of Aeschylus and the birth of Thucydides. That people in a given society are born at the same time does mean that they have the same spirit or instinct.
A moral world view is a sign of decadence, while an amoral world view is a sign of a renaissance spirit.
Decadence is sometimes amoral, especially in the modern era. Decadence is protean, and takes many different forms.
Although decadence has often, in the past, taken the form of repressive ethics, it takes different forms in our time. Modern decadence no longer advocates repression of the unconscious.
Why do decadent writers, especially those from earlier times, often preach morality, and advocate the repression of the unconscious?A lobotomy, or leucotomy, is a form of psychosurgery, a neurosurgical treatment of a mental disorder that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal cortex.
Most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain are severed.
It was used for psychiatric and occasionally other conditions as a mainstream procedure in some. The complete text of the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt.
A public-domain document online here at the Medieval History site. The complete text of the Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt. His thesis that the Renaissance is an era separate from the Middle Ages is largely overruled by.
The Greeks and Greek Civilization [Jacob Burckhardt, Oswyn Murray, Sheila Stern] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In , Jacob Burckhardt, one of the preeminent historians of classical and Renaissance culture, presented this revolutionary work.
Carl Gustav Jung has always been a popular but never a fashionable thinker. His ground-breaking theories about dream interpretation and psychological types have often been overshadowed by allegations that he was anti-Semitic and a Nazi sympathizer.
Jakob Burckhardt ~ Historian The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy Jakob Burckhardt, later famous as a Renaissance Cultural historian, was born in Basel, where his father was a minister in the Reformed church, in May Nietzsche believed Burckhardt agreed with the thesis of his The Birth of Tragedy, that Greek culture was defined by opposing "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" tendencies.
Nietzsche and Burckhardt enjoyed each other's intellectual company, even as Burckhardt kept his distance from Nietzsche's evolving philosophy. Jacob Burckhardt, and the.