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The electronic version issued November contains several factual corrections; several informational footnotes which were not included in the paper version; and a few additions to the bibliography.
The Regents were a corporation empowered to act as trustees of Columbia College originally chartered as King's College in and closed during the Revolutionary War and of every other college and academy incorporated in the state thereafter.
The Regents originally consisted of the governor, other state officers, and the mayors of New York and Albany, ex officio, plus twenty-four persons appointed for life.
This unwieldy body soon got involved in the day-to-day administration of Columbia. In a Regents' committee recommended that colleges and academies have their own trustees, and that the Regents be given broader responsibilities for overseeing education in New York.
A compromise bill became law. The act empowered the Regents to "visit and inspect Challenges associated with high fixed costs the colleges, academies, and schools" in the state, award higher academic degrees, hold and distribute funds, and exercise other powers of a corporation.
Until the board was reorganized under the unification act ofnineteen Regents were elected for life terms by joint ballot of the Legislature; in addition, the governor and lieutenant governor served as Regents. Since the University of the State of New York has been continued by the Constitution, which states that its corporate powers "may be increased, modified, or diminished" by the Legislature.
The Regents' protean power to "visit and inspect" member institutions of the University has taken various forms. During the nineteenth century the Regents exercised oversight by reviewing statistical reports from academies and colleges; only occasionally did Regents actually visit an institution.
The Regents adopted standards for incorporating private academies and collegesand required academies to offer acceptable programs in order to receive aid from the Literature Fund, established in The Legislature made the Regents trustees of the State Library and the collections of the State Museum in andrespectively.
During the later nineteenth century the Regents developed educational standards for academies and high schools statewide, through use of the Regents examinations and syllabi. These innovations were discussed and promoted by the University convocations, meetings of educators held annually starting The scope of the University expanded significantly in andwhen the Regents obtained legislation giving them the right to incorporate and supervise libraries, museums, correspondence schools, and other educational institutions.
The Secretary to the Board of Regents had long administered the affairs of the University. Starting in the Secretary then the redoubtable Melvil Dewey, also head of the State Library supervised full-time inspectors of secondary schools, libraries, colleges, and other institutions reporting to the Regents.
Unification of the University and Department of Public Instruction. New York State also developed a statewide system of public schools, under the common school law of Gideon Hawley, the first Superintendent of Common Schools, organized the system, distributed school aid from the Common School Fund, and prodded local officials to set up school districts and submit reports.
Hawley was dismissed in for political reasons, and thereafter the Secretary of State served as the Superintendent of Common Schools.
In the Legislature created a Department of Public Instruction, headed by a Superintendent elected jointly by the Senate and Assembly for a three-year renewable term.
The new Department had a small staff which carried on the work of advising local school authorities, allocating state aid, and preparing reports to the Legislature.
The responsibilities of the Regents and the state officials in charge of the common schools overlapped. The Regents had a vague statutory authority to oversee all education in the state.
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