Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: Explain why each of these features is necessary. State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics. Explain how each of the following deviates from these conclusions.
Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals.
This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation Explain the concept of homeostasis essay evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain.
Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the s by Joseph E. Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans see affect display.
The first modern version of such theories came from William James in the s.
LeDoux  and Robert Zajonc  who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. James—Lange theory In his article  William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena.
In his theory, James proposed that the perception of what he called an "exciting fact" directly led to a physiological response, known as "emotion. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, and therefore this theory became known as the James—Lange theory.
As James wrote, "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion. An emotion-evoking stimulus snake triggers a pattern of physiological response increased heart rate, faster breathing, etc.
This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state induces a desired emotional state. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity.
Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James—Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion. Cannon—Bard theory Walter Bradford Cannon agreed that physiological responses played a crucial role in emotions, but did not believe that physiological responses alone could explain subjective emotional experiences.
He argued that physiological responses were too slow and often imperceptible and this could not account for the relatively rapid and intense subjective awareness of emotion. An emotion-evoking event snake triggers simultaneously both a physiological response and a conscious experience of an emotion.
Phillip Bard contributed to the theory with his work on animals.
Bard found that sensory, motor, and physiological information all had to pass through the diencephalon particularly the thalamusbefore being subjected to any further processing. Therefore, Cannon also argued that it was not anatomically possible for sensory events to trigger a physiological response prior to triggering conscious awareness and emotional stimuli had to trigger both physiological and experiential aspects of emotion simultaneously.
Schachter did agree that physiological reactions played a big role in emotions. He suggested that physiological reactions contributed to emotional experience by facilitating a focused cognitive appraisal of a given physiologically arousing event and that this appraisal was what defined the subjective emotional experience.
Emotions were thus a result of two-stage process: For example, the physiological arousal, heart pounding, in a response to an evoking stimulus, the sight of a bear in the kitchen.
The brain then quickly scans the area, to explain the pounding, and notices the bear. Consequently, the brain interprets the pounding heart as being the result of fearing the bear. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation a confederate displayed that emotion.
Cognitive theories[ edit ] With the two-factor theory now incorporating cognition, several theories began to argue that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts were entirely necessary for an emotion to occur.
One of the main proponents of this view was Richard Lazarus who argued that emotions must have some cognitive intentionality. The cognitive activity involved in the interpretation of an emotional context may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing.
Cognitive appraisal—The individual assesses the event cognitively, which cues the emotion.Below is an essay on "P5 Explain the Concept of Homeostasis" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a constant internal environment in response to changes in the external environment. A Comparison of Digital and Analog Radiology - The debate over the best type of radiology, analog or digital, is ongoing as new improvements along with new problems and concerns continue to fuel the fire.
Below is an essay on "Explain the Concept of Homeostasis" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Anatomy and physiology Describe the concept of homeostasis and the mechanisms that regulate the heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature/5(1).
Explain the Concept of Homeostasis (P5) The main concept of homeostasis is to maintain a constant environment inside the body. It does this by controlling certain systems throughout the body, keeping it at the normal environment. Review Board. To better understand the process we use when choosing speakers, let’s first start with the Review Board.
Our Review Board consists of individuals who have years of experience in research, industry, presenting, and DEF CON culture. Explain the Concept of Homeostasis (P5) The chief construct of homeostasis is to keep a changeless environment inside the organic structure.
It does this by commanding certain systems throughout the organic structure, maintaining it at the normal environment.