It appears, instead, that it is the rapid, favorable response to the treatment that best differentiates the psychogenic from the neurologic group. It is important to note again, however, that many of the cases of acquired stuttering described in the literature as being psychogenic in origin, may have had a neurogenic component Newer imaging technology may identify neurological changes in cases where the stuttering was initially considered to be psychogenic. A review of case reports with lesion information shows that various areas within the neuraxis have been implicated in this disorder. It would appear that acquired stuttering is not correlated with a lesion in one discrete area of the nervous system.
Translation is clearly too important a task to be left to machines. But what sort of human should it be given to? Imagine that you are about to read a great French novel for the first time, and can only do so in your native English. The book itself is more than years old.
The impossible, of course. But what sort of impossible?
You want it to read as if it had originally been written in English — even if, necessarily, by an author deeply knowledgable about France. You would want it not to clank and whirr as it dutifully renders every single nuance, turning the text into the exposition of a novel rather than a novel itself.
You would want it to provoke in you most of the same reactions as it would provoke in a French reader though you would also want some sense of distance, and the pleasure of exploring a different world.
But what sort of French reader?
One from the late s, or the early s? Ideally, you would want to understand every period reference — for instance, to Trafalgar pudding, Ignorantine friars or Mathieu Laensberg — without needing to flick downwards or onwards to footnotes.
The decisions, and the colouration, are irrevocable.
So we might fantasise the translator of our dreams: Then we make a key decision: And if she was of the time, then might we not reasonably imagine the author helping her? They might work side by side on the text for as long as it takes.
As it happens, this dream was once a reality. Back inFlaubert claimed to his friend Louis de Cormenin that he had translated Candide into English. If one is going to appear in England, I want it to be this one and not any other one.
But by this time it — and she — were beginning to disappear from literary history.
The manuscript was lost, and so — more or less — was Juliet Herbert, until her resurrection by Hermia Oliver in Flaubert and an English Governess The translation of Candide has also been lost.
As for Flaubert and Shakespeare: In between, most of the 15 or more versions have been made by men. Which suggests a further question to the opening list:International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 5, No.
5; May Systemic Review of the Prevalence of Speech and Language Disorders in Nigeria. Stuttering in Contemporary Literature.
In , Trotter and Silverman compiled a bibliography of 27 books which contained "all contemporary literary works which to our knowledge have characters who stutter.". Alpha Omega Academy is an accredited online school with one-on-one teacher interaction.
Lessons can be completed at the student’s own pace, making it a flexible option. The Stuttering Jock's Opera - Kindle edition by Bill Sevald. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
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Chapter II Review of Literature Stuttering has been called a riddle. It is a complicated multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with many pieces still missing.