Such writings revolutionized Europeans opinions and the roles in society of man, the Catholic Church, and ancient Greece and Rome. Yes, this is one of the, if not the most famous sculpture in the world but that is not my reasoning for choosing it. The Renaissance was a transition to the Modern Age that began in Italy. It began in Italy for plenty of reasons but the main factors for this happening are the geographical and sociological factors.
Political and socioeconomic revolutions have been studied in many social sciencesparticularly sociologypolitical sciences and history. Ellwoodor Pitirim Sorokinwere mainly descriptive in their approach, and their explanations of the phenomena of revolutions was usually related to social psychologysuch as Le Bon's crowd psychology theory.
They can be divided into three major approaches: FeierbrandRosalind L.
FeierbrandJames A. GeschwenderDavid C. Schwartzand Denton E. Morrison fall into the first category. They followed theories of cognitive psychology and frustration-aggression theory and saw the cause of revolution in the state of mind of the masses, and while they varied in their approach as to what exactly caused the people to revolt e.
Tiryakianand Mark Hagopianfollowed in the footsteps of Talcott Parsons and the structural-functionalist theory in sociology; they saw society as a system in equilibrium between various resources, demands and subsystems political, cultural, etc.
As in the psychological school, they differed in their definitions of what causes disequilibrium, but agreed that it is a state of a severe disequilibrium that is responsible for revolutions. HuntingtonPeter Ammannand Arthur L. Stinchcombe followed the path of political sciences and looked at pluralist theory and interest group conflict theory.
Those theories see events as outcomes of a power struggle between competing interest groups. In such a model, revolutions happen when two or more groups cannot come to terms within a normal decision making process traditional for a given political systemand simultaneously have enough resources to employ force in pursuing their goals.
In that situation, an event that in the past would not be sufficient to cause a revolution e. The theories of the second generation have been criticized for their limited geographical scope, difficulty in empirical verification, as well as that while they may explain some particular revolutions, they did not explain why revolutions did not occur in other societies in very similar situations.
From the late s a new body of scholarly work began questioning the dominance of the third generation's theories.
The old theories were also dealt a significant blow by new revolutionary events that could not be easily explain by them. The Iranian and Nicaraguan Revolutions ofthe People Power Revolution in the Philippines and the Autumn of Nations in Europe saw multi-class coalitions topple seemingly powerful regimes amidst popular demonstrations and mass strikes in nonviolent revolutions.
Defining revolutions as mostly European violent state versus people and class struggles conflicts was no longer sufficient. The study of revolutions thus evolved in three directions, firstly, some researchers were applying previous or updated structuralist theories of revolutions to events beyond the previously analyzed, mostly European conflicts.
Secondly, scholars called for greater attention to conscious agency in the form of ideology and culture in shaping revolutionary mobilization and objectives.
Third, analysts of both revolutions and social movements realized that those phenomena have much in common, and a new 'fourth generation' literature on contentious politics has developed that attempts to combine insights from the study of social movements and revolutions in hopes of understanding both phenomena.
More recently, scholars like Jeff Colgan have argued that Polity, which measures the degree of democratic or autocratic authority in a state's governing institutions based on the openness of executive recruitment, constraints on executive authority, and political competition, is inadequate because it measures democratization, not revolution, and fails to account for regimes which come to power by revolution but fail to change the structure of the state and society sufficiently to yield a notable difference in Polity score.
Revolutions have also been approached from anthropological perspectives. Economist Douglass North argued that it is much easier for revolutionaries to alter formal political institutions such as laws and constitutions than to alter informal social conventions.
According to North, inconsistencies between rapidly changing formal institutions and slow-changing informal ones can inhibit effective sociopolitical change. Because of this, the long-term effect of revolutionary political restructuring is often more moderate than the ostensible short-term effect.Essay The Testament Of The Bible.
The Book of Deuteronomy sustains an integral position amongst the books of the Bible. It is the final book of the Pentateuch and befittingly links these opening books to the latter historical and prophetic books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings.
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In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, Drawing on Victor Turner’s writings on ritual and performance. Essay The Testament Of The Bible. The Book of Deuteronomy sustains an integral position amongst the books of the Bible. It is the final book of the Pentateuch and befittingly links these opening books to the latter historical and prophetic books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. Technological Innovations That Revolutionized Agriculture History Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, the last topic is the scientific discoveries that revolutionized agriculture. If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the.
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